The Court has delivered its judgment in the inter-State case of Georgia v. Russia (II) concerning allegations by the Georgian government that certain administrative practices of the Russian Federation had breached the Convention, in the context of the armed conflict between the two States in August 2008.
In the Court’s view, the events which took place during the active phase of the hostilities (8 to 12 August 2008) did not fall within the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation. However, it held that the Russian Federation had exercised “effective control” over South Ossetia, Abkhazia and the “buffer zone” during the period from 12 August to 10 October 2008, the date of the official withdrawal of the Russian troops. After that period, the strong Russian presence and the South Ossetian and Abkhazian authorities’ dependency on the Russian Federation indicated that there had been continued “effective control” over South Ossetia and Abkhazia. The Court therefore concluded that the events occurring after the cessation of hostilities – that is, following the ceasefire agreement of 12 August 2008 – had fallen within the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation. It found a number of violations of the Convention.
Civilization of grape vines and the brand-new energetic best tourism destination: An exclusive interview featuring Archil Kalandia, the Georgian Ambassador to China
With a history of 3000 years, Georgia is reputed as "God's Forgotten Backyard". For anyone that has visited Georgia has experienced the landscape's gorgeous mountains and rivers, the people's sincere and honest local customs and the country's exceptionally fragrant wine and unforgettable nature.
Tbilisi, the capital city of Georgia, which joined the World Tourism Cities Federation (WTCF) in 2019 becoming a member city, is one of the most popular tourism destinations in Europe. The city is now among the "European Best Destinations" since its overwhelming uniqueness never ceases to impress tourists, due to its long history, abundance in cuisine, diversity of architecture and numerous attractions. This alluring city shows the public the perfect fusion of the past and the present.
Audrey Azoulay, the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, named Tbilisi as the "World Book Capital 2021". Around the slogan "Ok. So your next book is…?", the program focuses on the use of modern technologies as powerful tools for encouraging young people to read.
So, what are the unique charms that Georgia possesses to make itself a favored destination? Archil Kalandia, the Georgian Ambassador to China, unveiled the mystery of this country for us this autumn in the Embassy of Georgia in China.
"Tbilisi is a part of my life"
Tbilisi is one of the oldest capitals in Europe. The name of the city is first mentioned in historical sources from the fourth century; however, it was not a capital then, but a fortified city. Convenient geographical location has contributed to the development of Tbilisi, turning it into a prominent hub between Europe and Asia.
Ambassador Kalandia was born in Tbilisi which is not simply the capital of Georgia but also a part of his life. Tbilisi is a city of rich culture and diversity. "You can visit Orthodox church, Jewish synagogue and Muslim mosque on one street in Tbilisi. This is because the diversity of people and culture in Tbilisi is profound." Tbilisi has been an open, inclusive and friendly city where Jews, Armenians, Azerbaijanis and other ethnic minorities live along with Georgians. A fervent historical and cultural atmosphere is displayed throughout the avenues and streets of Tbilisi. Colorful architecture blending the elements of the past and present shows the casual and simple lifestyle of this city. All the traits of human civilizations tell the history of Tbilisi.
"We are two of the most ancient countries in the world. That is why mutual understanding is much easier for two countries. As an ambassador, a long record of cultural and historical ties between two countries makes my duty more meaningful and easier." Ambassador Kalandia also stated that, due to the aforementioned advantages, Georgia is also playing an important role in the modern Belt and Road Initiative.
7 million bottles of wine exported from Georgia to China
As you have never expected, Georgia is the oldest wine region of the world and, therefore hailed "the cradle of wine". Wine is an integral part of Georgians' lives. They "raise their glasses and toast to celebrate the birth of a new life and bid farewell to the deceased by raising another glass of wine".
Speaking of wine, Ambassador Kalandia introduced to us with passion that "Georgia has uninterrupted history of viticulture and Winemaking which counts 8000 years. We also have special technology for wine-making "Qvevri", which is on the list of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of UNESCO. In Georgia, especially the eastern part, you can find self-produced wine in many families with very special winemaking methodologies. This is why one of the symbols of Georgia is the vine. Georgia is home to at least 525 distinct grape varieties."
The Majority of linguists agree that semantic meaning of the word "wine" is rooted only in Georgian language. The root of the word "ghv" is purely Georgian and is found in many Georgian words. GVINO and then vino, vin, wine and etc.
Nowadays, China has become one of the major importers of Georgian wine. With its traditional and unique wine-making technology and delicate, diverse tastes, wine produced in Georgia is gradually becoming the new normal on Chinese tables. Ambassador Kalandia said, "When I first came to Beijing in 2005, wine culture was becoming more and more popular in this country. Georgia is the only country in the Region with free trade agreement with China. 7 million bottles of wine were exported from Georgia into Chinese market last year and we are trying to increase the amount in the post-pandemic era."
After we completed the interview, the ambassador also invited us to sample collected Georgian wine of various kinds.
"It's a huge responsibility to represent my country here in China"
In total Ambassador Kalandia has lived in Beijing more than 10 years. While being asked to choose a word to describe the Chinese capital, Ambassador Kalandia used "powerful". "Beijing is the political center of China where historical events have taken place. The city is developing very rapidly. It is an amazing place and I can see the power of this city every day."
Ambassador Kalandia has also visited many Chinese cities besides Beijing, with Kunming, Chengdu and Hangzhou being his favorite. As for the features of these cities, Ambassador Kalandia remarked in a familiar tone: "Kunming is a city with amiable climate, hospitable people and a long history. Many historical locations can be found in Sichuan, a place that highly resembles Georgia. Like Georgians, people there can see beautiful mountains and enjoy savoring wine. I like Hangzhou for its historical, modern and interesting features." He finished the talk by saying "but definitely Beijing is number one."
Ambassador Kalandia belongs to the post-80s generation. While being asked about his work as an ambassador in China, he replied: "I am very privileged. For me, it's a huge responsibility to represent my country here in China. My daily life is dedicated to strengthening and deepening bilateral and multilateral cooperation between two countries." He also admitted that his backgrounds of being a sinologist (Ambassador had published Monography - Transformation of China in XXI Century and more than 10 articles regarding the Reforms and Opening Up Policy of China) and a professional economist of oriental countries have contributed a lot to his daily work and life. "As an ambassador, I can say that my work is full of challenges".
Statement by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia on approval of the programme on creation of common socio-economic space between the Russian Federation and the occupied Abkhazia region of GeorgiaFriday, 27 November 2020 10:18
Approval of the programme on creation of common socio-economic space between the Russian Federation and the occupied Abkhazia region of Georgia represents another illegal step towards de-facto annexation that envisages gradual integration of Georgia’s indivisible regions into Russia’s military, political, economic and social systems.
The so-called “treaty on alliance and strategic partnership” concluded between the Russian Federation and its occupation regime in Sokhumi in November 2014 as well as all subsequent so-called “agreements”, “memoranda” or “programmes” are illegal and cannot have any legal effect. Through such provocative steps and hybrid warfare instruments, the Russian Federation blatantly violates the fundamental norms and principles of international law, undermines the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Georgia, and poses a serious threat to peace and security on the European continent.
We call upon the Russian Federation to cease its destructive actions and illegal steps directed towards de-facto annexation of Georgia’s occupied territories, implement its obligations under the EU-mediated 12 August 2008 Ceasefire Agreement, withdraw its military forces from Georgia’s territory and not to impede creation of international security mechanisms on the ground.
On 22 June, the EU Delegation to Georgia launched the EU Sustainable Energy Week (EUSEW) campaign. The campaign consists of tips for citizens on saving energy and money, caring about the environment and making their homes more energy efficient.
This year, the EUSEW will run from 22 to 26 June. The event will be held virtually, and the topic will be Beyond the crisis: Clean energy for green recovery and growth.
The EUSEW is the biggest event dedicated to renewables and efficient energy use in Europe. It is organised by the European Commission and brings together public authorities, private companies, non-government organisations and consumers to promote initiatives to save energy and move towards renewables for clean, secure and efficient power.
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Presidents of EBRD and ADB Confirm Readiness To Help Georgia Return to High Rate of Economic Development in Video Conference With Giorgi GakhariaThursday, 09 April 2020 12:03
Prime Minister of Georgia Giorgi Gakharia held a video conference with the presidents of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) regarding the possible assistance and financial resources to be allocated to Georgia due to the challenges associated with the global pandemic.
Economic problems caused by the global spread of COVID-19 were emphasized during the video conference. Funding allocated by EBRD and ADB to the Georgian private sector, Georgian banks, and other business entities was noted in particular.
The sides also discussed post-crisis measures and the assistance that Georgia might receive from the financial institutions, which would enable the government to continue the state funding programs that are being implemented today to support citizens and private businesses.
It was noted that the government team is actively working with the local representatives, as well as the head offices of both EBRD and ADB to jointly develop a package of measures that will focus on overcoming the ongoing challenges.
According to the assessment of the presidents of the financial institutions, the fact that Georgia is successfully coping with the crisis constitutes sufficient grounds to say that the country will very quickly regain the rate and positions of economic development that it possessed at the beginning of 2020. Suma Chakrabarti and Masatsugu Asakawa confirmed their readiness to actively support Georgia in this area.
The Georgian side stressed that EBRD and ADB are very strong and serious partners for Georgia. It was noted that the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the Asian Development Bank have financed extremely important projects worth hundreds of millions of dollars in Georgia, including in the area of infrastructure. It was noted that all major systemic infrastructural projects funded by them are still in the active phase of implementation today, despite the ongoing crisis.
The head of government thanked EBRD and ADB for their active cooperation and their support of Georgia.
Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Regional Development and Infrastructure Maia Tskitishvili and Minister of Finance Ivane Machavariani participated in the video conference.
On March 3-4, Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan will hold an official visit to Georgia. An official welcoming ceremony will be held at the Government Administration. Head of Georgian Government Giorgi Gakharia will host his Armenian counterpart. A face-to-face meeting between the Prime Minister of Georgia and Armenia will be held along with an enhanced format meeting, followed by Giorgi Gakharia and Nikol Pashinyan making statements for the press.
During his official visit, the Prime Minister of the Republic of Armenia will hold meetings with Georgian president Salome Zourabichvili and Chairman of Parliament Archil Talakvadze.
Nikol Pashinyan, together with the Armenian delegation, will visit Heroes Square to pay homage to the memory of the heroes fallen for Georgia's unity.
The official visit of the Armenian governmental delegation to Georgia will conclude on March 4.
Press Service of the Government Administration
Georgia 's work for developing and promoting its tourist potential has been recognised at northern Europe's largest travel industry event with the Foreign Destination of the Year award for the country's representation at the Matka 2020 fair.
The Georgian delegation at the 2019 Travel Awards of the fair, held earlier today within its Matka Trade Day that caters to industry professionals, collected the prize in Helsinki from the Finnish Guild of Travel Journalists.
Matka 2020 targets not only the Finnish tourist segment, but Nordic and Baltic countries as well. Nine companies and organizations represented at the Matka 2020 fair includes: Adjara Tourism and Resorts Department, Adjara-Tour Ltd, Georgia in Contact, Caucasus Travel, World Express, Georgian Travel Group, Voyage Tours, APG, Iberia Tours Plus.
In this September, the “2019 HWPL World Peace Summit” was held in over 110 locations of 200 countries in cooperation between an international peace NGO named HWPL, government officials, and the global civil society worldwide. In Tbilisi of Georgia citizens from various social stratum gathered to call for a legislation of an international law for peace.
On September 9th, the event was also held in Tbilisi, under the theme of the “Legislate Peace (LP)" - Implementation of the DPCW for Sustainable Development”. About 20 participants including Vakhtang Bolotashvili from the Civil Movement, Elbrus Mammadov, the chairman of Human Rights Monitoring Group of National, Giorgi Jashiashili, the president of European Youth Organization. The participants joined the “Peace Letter Campaign”, as a part of the “LP” project which was held in 200 places of 110 countries and “LP” urges the head of state to support the establishment of international law for peace based on the Declaration of Peace and Cessation of War (DPCW).
DPCW is a document that specified the roles of international society to prevent and resolve conflicts around the world and currently in the process of being introduced to the UN as a draft resolution. Around 1.5 million citizens from 195 countries have taken part in the LP project by writing support letters and collecting support signatures.
Responses from leaders including the Presidents of USA, Sri Lanka, Mozambique, and Prime Ministers of Canada and North Macedonia have shown the support for the DPCW advocated by citizens in each country
There also was a time for case presentation by Tamar Lolishvili, an English teacher from Gymnasium AIA-GESSof Peace Education which is being practiced in accordance with the 10th article of DPCW, ‘Spread a Culture of Peace’ Choosing peace education is about creative problem solving, carefully understanding the problem itself and its various dimensions, and adopting new ways of thinking, perceiving and handling situations.”“Virtual Peace Camp invites children to think about what peace means to them and where they feel peaceful. The activities encourage children to think about what they can do to build peace, helping to develop interpersonal peace. The project also encourages children to think critically about war and to explore its human cost; they will learn about how children – so often the innocent victims of war – can work together for peace.
The host organization, HWPL, is an international NGO associated with UN DGC and in consultative status with UN ECOSOC. ‘9.18 HWPL World Peace Summit’ was annually held since 2014 and is a field of opportunity where figures from politics, religions, media, youth and women gather and discuss on peace.
Titus Corlatean (Romania, SOC) and Claude Kern (France, ADLE), co-rapporteurs of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) for the monitoring of obligations and commitments by Georgia, will make a fact-finding visit to the country from 17 to 18 September 2019.
Discussions will mainly focus on recent political developments, the independence of the judiciary, the judicial reform, the functioning of the High Council of Justice, and the organisation of elections.
In Tbilisi, Mr Corlatean and Mr Kern are due to meet, in particular, the President of the Republic, the Prime Minister, the Speaker of the Parliament, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Internal Affairs, as well as the State Minister for Reconciliation and Civic Equality. Talks are also scheduled with various parliamentary committees, the political groups represented in Parliament, and the Georgian delegation to PACE.
The co-rapporteurs will also meet the Chair of the Central Election Commission, representatives of the judicial authorities, the Public Defender, and representatives of the diplomatic community and NGOs.
On 11 June, Chief Veterinary Officers and experts from the Republic of Moldova and Georgia will join their counterparts from some of the EU’s other Neighbourhood countries at a seminar in Bucharest, Romania, to discuss animal welfare during transportation by sea.
This multi-country workshop aims to identify good practices and facilitate exchanges of experience between experts in the field of animal welfare during transportation by sea of live animals from the EU to third countries.
The workshop is being organised by the European Commission’s Technical Assistance and Information Exchange Instrument (TAIEX), in cooperation with the National Sanitary Veterinary and Food Safety Authority in Romania.
According to TAIEX, the communication of standards on animal welfare during transportation are relevant to international trade and cooperation with partners across the world, who play a significant role in promoting and implementing them. Such standards are included in the provisions of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE).
In 2004, the EU adopted a regulation through which harmonised rules were set for animal welfare during transport in and between the Member States. Moreover, in 2015, the Court of Justice of the European Union ruled that, for the transportation of animals involving a long journey starting from EU territory and continuing outside of it, the organiser of the transport from the EU is responsible for the welfare of animals for the entire journey, up to the final point in the third country.