The launch ceremony of the pilot project of the Global Transit Document took place on August 17, 2022 at the Berkarar Hotel of the Avaza National Tourist Zone.
The Global Transit Document (GTrD), which is a universal digital solution for the development of multimodal transportation, is the result of fruitful cooperation between the Permanent Secretariat of the Intergovernmental Commission of the International Transport Corridor Europe-Caucasus-Asia (TRACECA) with the International Center for Transport Diplomacy, the Intergovernmental Council of Road Workers of the CIS, and the world's largest developers of IT technologies, as well as with countries that have shown interest in piloting the GTrD.
The launch ceremony of the pilot project of the Global Transit Document was attended by the Executive Secretary of the International Center for Transport Diplomacy I.Runov, the Chairman of the Intergovernmental Council of Road Workers of the Commonwealth of Independent States B.Karimov, as well as representatives of the countries of the region - Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
The speakers emphasized that at the turn of the third decade of the 21st century, economic realities and trends in the development of the world economy created an obvious need for the development and implementation of a unified Global Transit Document in order to optimize the management of the transport process along multimodal corridors connecting states of different regions and continents.
The introduction of a digital platform of the global transit network based on the latest technologies using the Global Transit Document will make it possible to extend the customs guarantee and insurance regime, as well as ensure the traceability of goods and vehicles along the entire route from the starting point to the destination.
At the end of the official launch ceremony of the pilot project of the Global Transit Document, its participants adopted a Joint Statement, in which they confirmed the readiness of the parties for further cooperation in promoting the proposal to create a global digital transit network at various levels, as well as within the United Nations.
On August 17, 2022, a briefing was held at the Berkarar Hotel of the Avaza National Tourist Zone on the results of the International Ministerial Transport Conference of Landlocked Developing Countries and events dedicated to it. The Ashgabat Process: Financing for Better Connectivity Forum was organized by the Government of Turkmenistan under the auspices of the United Nations.
The briefing organized by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs was attended by members of the Government, the Chairwoman of the Mejlis of the Milli Gengesh of Turkmenistan, heads of ministries and departments, as well as representatives of the Mejlis and the Halk Maslakhaty of the Milli Gengesh, public organizations, and the media.
It was emphasized that all meetings of the Conference were broadcast live on the United Nations web television channel in its four official languages - English, French, Spanish and Russian.
At the same time, the importance of new initiatives voiced by President Serdar Berdimuhamedov, who addressed the forum participants with a video message, was especially noted, in which Turkmenistan's readiness to intensify and expand its participation in the global transport dialogue was confirmed.
Expressing confidence that the decisions and proposals adopted at the current forum will form the basis for the preparation of the Third UN Conference on Landlocked Developing Countries, scheduled for 2024, in his video message, President Serdar Berdimuhamedov said that together with partners and like-minded people, Turkmenistan will resolutely move towards the achievement of the set goals.
The results of the forum were consolidated in the Final Statement, which highlights the importance of strengthening transport connectivity for the sustainable recovery of landlocked countries from the COVID-19 pandemic, accelerating the implementation of the Vienna Program of Action and achieving the SDGs.
It was noted that relevant work is currently underway to formalize the Final Statement adopted in Avaza as an official document of the 77th session of the UN General Assembly, which will open on September 13 this year.
Thus, it was stated that the International Ministerial Transport Conference of Landlocked Developing Countries held with the support of the President of Turkmenistan in the Avaza National Tourist Zone, has become an effective contribution to strengthening and building up constructive regional and global cooperation in the field of sustainable transport in the name of world peace, prosperity and progress
As part of the First Caspian Forum, a meeting has been held by high-ranking transport officials from the coastal nations, which are the parties to the Agreement on Transport Cooperation between Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan.
Worked out on the initiative of President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov, the document was submitted at the 2014 Fourth Caspian Summit in the city of Astrakhan, the Russian Federation and signed at the 2018 Fifth Caspian Summit in the city of Aktau, the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Speakers at the meeting highlighted that today each coastal nation is implementing large-scale projects aimed to build modern sea, road, rail and air transport infrastructure to ensure passenger and freight operations.
Optimum use of the existing transcontinental routes and creation of new international transport corridors in the Caspian Sea will spur further socio-economic development of the neighboring countries, increase their investment opportunities, and strengthen regional and interregional trade-economic, cultural-humanitarian relations, and tourism.
Undertaking massive projects designed to build modern infrastructure of universal significance, setting up sustainable logistics systems used by national transport operators, providing a wider spectrum of services will undoubtedly enhance the regional and interregional trade-economic relations.
Rapid tourism development opens up new vistas for the sector, in particular, with new destinations, itineraries, and cruises in the Caspian Sea to be on offer. This will accelerate the littoral states’ economic growth and improve the nations’ wellbeing.
Detailed discussions centered on making joint efforts to build necessary port infrastructure facilities and to expand the partnership.
Each country, including Turkmenistan, has all necessary facilities to promptly transport goods, using intermodal routes between Europe, Asia and the Far East.
In this context, the opening of the International Turkmenbashi Seaport is seen as a landmark event. Making the most of its facilities will allow the littoral countries to take the cooperation on a new level, speeding up their integration into the international system of economic relations, and increasing Turkmenistan’s role in the continental multimodal transport services.
The meeting also focused on Turkmenistan’s transport infrastructure potential, specifics of large-size and heavy-weight cargo deliveries to the Caspian Sea region by different modes of transport, and transit operations to Central Asia via our country.
As noted, the International Seaport boasts necessary facilities to handle refrigerated containers and a 9,000-square-meter covered storage site. The terminal is capable of bringing our country to the fore of the region’s export-import freight operations.
The multimodal port is able to store and handle containerized air, road and rail freight (including freight loading and uploading operations).
Thus, our country is making a major contribution to expanding international cooperation in the transport and communications sector – the important segment of the world economy.
Summing up the meeting, the experts stated that much preparatory work had been done in all the key areas of cooperation in the Caspian Sea. The parties stressed the need for the littoral states to take necessary steps to finalize their national procedures and to bring the Agreement on Transport Cooperation into force.
The meeting culminated in the signing of the relevant document aimed to boost traditional relations between the region’s countries that have every possibility of forging the partnership in the transport sphere.
The state news agency of Turkmenistan
Hazar Hotel of Avaza National tourist zone hosted the conference “Financing for support of the realization of 2030 Global Agenda under Sustainable Development.
This forum was organized by the United Nations Permanent Representative Office in our country together with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Finances and Economy of Turkmenistan. The UN Deputy General Secretary, Executive Secretary of the UN Economic Commission for Europe Olga Algayrova, Permanent Coordinator of the UN to Turkmenistan Elena Panova as well as specialists of numerous international organizations and financial structures were among the foreign guests of the forum. These are Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific, the World Bank, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Asian Development Bank.
Representatives of ministries and departments of Turkmenistan, which deal with financing of the SDGs, as well as more than 150 delegates of foreign companies and business communities took part in the conference.
They were familiarized with Voluntary National Review of Turkmenistan, which was presented to the world community at the High-level Political forum under the UN ECOSOC in New York. It was mentioned that according to the Resolution of President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov from November 17, 2017, institutional structures of the SDG monitoring system in Turkmenistan has been approved, which includes the formation of the SDG Working Group. It includes representatives of more than 50 national ministries and departments, regional and Ashgabat administrations, public organizations, scientific and research institutes and universities.
It was informed during the exchange of opinions about the support that the World Bank offers to the countries of Central Asia for promotion of the Programme of financing of development. Representative of the UNDP formulated the main trends of the SDGs’ financing in Central Asian Region, specific recommendations for Caspian States in this direction have been given.
The EBRD delegate shared his view on what private sector and private capital are able to do to support the sustainable development and what support of investors and the Government is needed to entrepreneurs. Representative of the ADB told the most perspective financial instruments for elimination of deficiency of the SDGs’ financing.
It was mentioned that owing to far-seeing policy of the Head of the State Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov, the implementation of 2030 Agenda by Turkmenistan was provided by the development of integrated mechanisms of financing and their implementation on all levels.
Thus, the share of budgetary expenses to social sphere including education, health protection, social provision is more than 70 percent according to the Programme of the President of Turkmenistan on social and economic development in 2019 – 2025. In addition, budget money are sent to creation of qualitative, available, cheap, reliable and stable infrastructure including transport, energy, water supply and sanitary for all. These measures are provided under the implementation of the programmes of reforms of social and living conditions of rural population, for realization of which it is planned to allocate about 10 billion manats.
It was also mentioned that it is necessary to attract international finances as well as resources of private sector for the achievement of ambitious and integrated sustainable development goals. In this regard, the development of instruments and mechanisms of mixed finances by the partnership between the Government and private sector gains more appropriateness. The Government of Turkmenistan took number of measures for improvement of legal base and developed the programmes of support of private sector for creation of favourable conditions of its development. These measures allowed expanding the sphere and share of private sector in the branches of the economy as well as creating the conditions for intensification of measures for development of the partnership between the Government and private business.
The state news agency of Turkmenistan
President of Turkmenistan Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov takes part in the International Caspian Forum at the Avaza National tourism zoneThursday, 15 August 2019 14:19
The International Conference “The Caspian Sea: in the interest of developing international economic cooperation” opened in the Congress Center of the Avaza National tourism zone. President of Turkmenistan Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov takes part in the conference meeting.
The agenda of the Conference - the main event of the First Caspian Economic Forum (FCEE), initiated by the Turkmen leader, includes important issues related to enhancing the fruitful interaction of the littoral states and all interested foreign partners.
Welcoming all those present, President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov thanked everyone for the response to the invitation to participate in the First Caspian Economic Forum.
The President noted that the conference brought together the heads of the governments of the Caspian littoral states and other countries, the envoys from dozens of countries, representing various spheres - politicians, diplomats, businessmen, environmentalists, scientists, journalists among others.
“We are all like-minded people, united by the understanding of the importance of a multifaceted and systemic dialogue on the development of the Caspian region, determining the prospects for international cooperation in the Caspian Sea”, said the President of Turkmenistan. “The new meaning of such a partnership, based on modern views and criteria, is intended to lay a solid foundation for the future joint creative work”.
In this regard, President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov expressed gratitude to all the Caspian countries for supporting Turkmenistan's initiative to hold the First Caspian Economic Forum, as well as for the active participation in the preparatory work. This initiative was the result of a deep analysis of modern processes of global and regional development, the place and role of the Caspian Sea as the most important geopolitical and geo-economic space. Today, the objective interests of not only littoral states but also other countries are concentrated there due to the fact that the Caspian region is a large natural source of hydrocarbon resources, a transport and transit hub of a continental scale, and a promising territory for expanding international trade.
The state news agency of Turkmenistan
As part of the First Caspian Economic Forum, Avaza has hosted a meeting of representatives of sectoral agencies of the Republic of Azerbaijan, the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Russian Federation, and Turkmenistan - the parties to the Agreement between the Governments of the littoral Caspian nations on trade-economic cooperation, signed at the Fifth Caspian Summit in Aktau in 2018.
As noted, given the existing global geopolitical context, a mechanism for regional cooperation is attaining greater importance and topicality not only as an instrument for deepening economic interaction, but also as a key factor in ensuring sustainable development.
The heads of the visiting foreign delegations highlighted that the constructive cooperation among the coastal nations aims at combining efforts in order to accomplish the objectives. In the present era, the Caspian Sea has an increasingly important role to play in the global geopolitical and geo-economic landscape. Expanding steadily the full regional cooperation is entirely consistent with the five coastal countries’ policies.
The countries have adopted a ‘stability through common development’ approach as an optimal form of partnership that reflects economic needs of each Caspian Sea nation. In this context, it was noted that the forum is well timed taking place at exactly the right moment.
The participants shared an opinion that coordinated efforts are today taking on particular significance for macroregional cooperation. Special emphasis was placed on the importance of the Convention on the Legal Status of the Caspian Sea, signed at the Fifth Caspian Summit in August 2018. The real value of this international treaty, which has become a strategically vital step in promoting economic development in the Caspian Sea, lies in the fact that it provides the legal groundwork for enhancing cooperation in different areas.
Speakers at the meeting highlighted that dealing with the pressing issues on the agenda would help to identify areas of common interest to further strengthen the mutually profitable relations. On the whole, further partnership between the region’s countries offers real prospects for maintaining rapid sustainable development and their integration into the world economy.
Amid growing competition in the foreign and domestic markets, the littoral countries’ considerable industrial and investment potential should be used to cement cooperation in tackling burning issues. Exchanging their views on the possibilities of boosting the constructive contacts, the heads of the delegations expressed satisfaction with the states’ mutual desire to step up economic relations, and create effective mechanisms for cooperation to make the Caspian Sea region an area of integrated partnership on an equitable and long-term basis with an investment-friendly climate. In this context, the parties spoke for implementing interstate programs and projects.
Those speaking from the Turkmen side stressed that the development of international ties in investment activities contributes to fulfilling our country’s versatile potential. Willingness of foreign investors to invest heavily in the national economy, which boasts good performance indicators, testifies to great trust placed in our country as a reliable, responsible and reputable partner that has enormous potential. In this regard, the sides discussed potentialities of creating joint enterprises.
In the course of the meeting, special attention was given to sharing knowledge and expertise on establishing and developing special free economic zones that have become an integral part of world economic relations today. The speakers emphasized that creation of free economic zones will boost competitiveness of the national economies, enhance export possibilities of the littoral states, and, eventually, bring prosperity and well-being to the nations.
The digital economy was named as a key area of cooperation. The sector is identified as a top priority and main focus of the coastal countries’ state policies. As noted, in this day and age, it is impossible to imagine living without information technologies that have changed, facilitated and improved activities in different spheres, having opened up new market possibilities.
Digital infrastructure and advances in computer technologies create huge potential in the field of information systems, accelerating their widespread adoption in economic life, and forming the bedrock of the digital economy. In this respect, the meeting attendees considered implementing joint action plans in the sector. This will encourage the countries’ business and investment activities, helping to build up productive relationships.
The parties also recognized the advisability of sharing legislative acts, national standards, regulations and statistical data on trade-economic issues, having proposed to work out new agreements. The meeting also addressed the need to simplify visa procedures as this would bring benefits and stimulate the region’s economic development in the long run.
The state news agency of Turkmenistan
President of Turkmenistan and Heads of Government of Caspian Forum Participating Countries Attend Festive Concert as Guests of Honor
The Avaza National Tourist Zone has hosted a gala concert featuring Turkmen and foreign artists. The grand event was a rousing finale to the First Caspian Economic Forum.
President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov, the heads of government participating in the Forum and numerous foreign visitors attended the spectacular performance as the guests of honor.
Famous folk and pop singers and musicians demonstrated their musical prowess one after another. Turkmen and foreign artists took turns to perform on stage.
The audience applauded and cheered loudly, welcoming Russian pop singers, who had participated in many prestigious international music festivals and competitions – Honored Artist of the Russian Federation Zara, Sergey Lazarev, Nyusha, and Olga Shultays, better known as V’OLGA.
The concert also featured well-known pop singer, musician and Honored Artist of the Republic of Azerbaijan Rashad Ilyasov and his fellow countrywoman, singer Samira Efendieva. Accomplished singer Adilkhan Makin, whose fame has spread far beyond his native country and young singer Aygerim Altynbek represented Kazakhstan. Majid Akhshabi and Hamed Mahzarnia were pop singers from Iran. The Astrakhan State Song and Dance Ensemble delighted the audience with its lively and energetic songs and dances.
The crowning moment of the concert came with the ancient dance Kushtdepdi performed by Dekhistan Folk Group and our foreign guests, who appeared on the stage dressed in Turkmen national costumes. The festive evening of music culminated in a dazzling fireworks display.
The state news agency of Turkmenistan
President of Turkmenistan Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov has met with First Vice-President of the Islamic Republic of Iran Eshaq Jahangiri in the Avaza National Tourist Zone.
Appreciative of the warm welcome, the guest passed on greetings to the head of state from President of Iran Hassan Rouhani, who had also sent his wishes for well-being and prosperity to the Turkmen nation. Taking advantage of the opportunity, Eshaq Jahangiri offered his congratulations to the Turkmen leader on Kurban Bayram and on the First Caspian Economic Forum.
Thanking the guest for the kind words, the President of Turkmenistan sent his best wishes and congratulations on Kurban Bayram to the friendly country’s top leadership.
During an exchange of opinions on prospects for Turkmen-Iranian cooperation in the trade-economic sphere, the parties confirmed the two countries’ willingness to boost the mutually rewarding business contacts, to increase bilateral trade and to stimulate investment.
The head of state and his guest considered prospects for collaboration in the fuel and energy sector that opens up vast vistas in the context of our countries’ advantageous geographical location and abundant natural resources. This provides the groundwork for effective bilateral cooperation on energy security.
Special emphasis was placed on enhancing cooperation in the transport sector, where Turkmenistan had put forward with a number of important initiatives to build regional and international transport and communications infrastructure.
In this context, the sides emphasized the importance of the First Caspian Economic Forum that had lent new impetus to cooperation among the countries in the region across a broad spectrum of areas.
Having expressed confidence that the forum would culminate in new joint projects aimed to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, the guest thanked the President of Turkmenistan for the hospitality extended to him on Turkmen soil and the favorable environment created for the Iranian delegation’s fruitful work.
The parties also exchanged their views on a number of topical regional and global issues of common interest and concern, and confirmed their willingness to further cooperate in the international arena.
Concluding the meeting, President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov and First Vice-President of the Islamic Republic of Iran Eshaq Jahangiri expressed confidence in the successful development of the interstate partnership that meets the interests of the two friendly countries and nations.
The state news agency of Turkmenistan
On May 30, 2019, in Grigol Robakidze University the Embassy of Turkmenistan in Georgia held the Conference dedicated to the First Caspian Economic Forum,which will be held on August 12, 2019, in the National Tourist Zone “Avaza”, Turkmenbashi.
The round table was attended by faculty and students of universities of Georgia, media outlet representatives.
At the beginning of the round table, the video on the First Caspian Economic Forum’s significance and prospects was shown.
Speakers noted that the initiative to hold the First Caspian Economic Forum was proposed by President of Turkmenistan Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov at the V Summit of the Heads of Caspian States. It was also underlined that one of the greatest challenges of this Forum is to use of the Caspian Sea unifying factor for consolidation of efforts aimed atexpanding mutually beneficial trade and economic cooperation; the devising incentive mechanisms for national resources management, implementation of joint investment projects and programmers, sharing experiences on the economic cooperation issues, creation of joint ventures and active dialogue of business societies.
X International Gas Congress, which outlined new vectors of development of interstate cooperation in gas sphere and supported the coordination of joint plans for future, has accomplished its work in Avaza National tourist zone.
Atmosphere and course of discussions at the Congress was provided by the fact that the role of natural gas as the most ecologically acceptable and economically beneficial energy resource, which supports stable development of the countries, is growing rapidly in the world energy industry. Therefore, the intent of leading companies of the planet to establish close cooperation with our country, which has rich reserves of gas in the world, is quite legitimate.
Demand on energy is the key indicator for any energy forecast. In this case, the opinion of experts is clear – Asia will be in the focus in international gas trade for next three decades, which will lead to the necessity of formation of gas transport and gas processing infrastructure. Thus, geographic factor strengthens the positions of Turkmenistan in the world energy markets. Special interest raised by the presentation of the projects of industrial development of largest Galkynysh Field and construction of transnational gas pipeline Turkmenistan – Afghanistan – Pakistan – India among the participants of the Congress became another evidence to this.
At the same time, opportunities of supply of Turkmen gas to Europe and Russian, plans for increment of throughput capacity of Central Asia – China gas line have been actively discussed at the sessions and fields of the Forum.
Diversification of oil and gas industry and enhancement of its innovative component are important aspects of energy strategy steadily implemented by President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov. Rating of the companies successfully working in this direction are headed now by representatives of business circles of the Republic of Korean and Japan, together with which number of big projects of deep processing of natural gas has been implemented.
At the same time, it was said at the forum that Turkmenistan is open for other investors offering the projects of construction of super modern facilities making variety of petrochemical production based on advanced technologies and latest scientific and technical developments.
Perspective directions of cooperation in oil and gas industry of Turkmenistan were discussed on the second day of the Congress. Reports of top managers and specialists of structural divisions of Turkmen fuel and energy complex – Turkmenbashy Refinery Complex and the State Concern Türkmengaz, hve been listened with keen interest.
At present time, Conceptual strategy of development of Turkmenbashy refinery Complex and Seydi Refinery is under development at the request of the Head of the State. Capabilities of Turkmenbashy Refinery Complex and Seydi Refinery will be analysed in details, perspective directions of their further development as well as optimum variety of petroleum products, which are on high demand in the world market and can be produced at the facilities of the complex, will be outlined.
In particular, it is planned to build new technological lines, which will refine the oil up to 90 percent, at Turkmenbashy Refinery Complex. It includes the complex of units for hydro treatment of diesel fractions and gasolines, catalyst cracking of heavy residuals of oil refining as well as the installations for production of high quality base technical oils.
In addition, technical and economic feasibility of production of benzene at Seydi Refinery for its further use as a raw material for production of valuable products like polystyrene and rubber, which are on high demand in the world market, is studied. In addition, the construction of these units will allow Turkmen petrochemical industry to start the production of gasoline meeting Euro 5 standards.
Representatives of PETRONAS (Malaysia) and Chinese National Petroleum Corporation presented the review of their activity in Turkmenistan.
International petroleum company PETRONAS works for more than 20 years in Turkmenistan on the base of the Production Sharing Agreement on Block 1 in Caspian Sea. For this period, PETRONAS has invested more than 10.7 billion US dollars to the exploration and development of contractual territory , which is located 80 km to the southwest from Turkmenbashy.
At present moment, intensive production of oil and gas is carried out at Magtumguly and Diyarbekir Fields. Activation of drilling works in the western part of Garagol Deniz Field is also planned. This project includes the construction of offshore platform, which will be connected with onshore gas terminal in Kiyanly by the pipeline. Gas treatment plant and hydrocarbon separation units for separation of oil, condensate and associated gas has been built previously in this place.
Starting from 1998, the company implements international educational programme for the school graduates of Turkmenistan who study in University of Technology of PETRONAS. This university has also signed the Memorandum of Understanding and Cooperation with International Oil and Gas University of our country for creation of favourable climate for education and research activity.
In its turn, Chinese National Petroleum Corporation make exploration, development and production at Bagtiyarlyk territory, which became one of the sources for Turkmenistan – China gas pipeline. Starting from 2007 when the Production Sharing Agreement was signed, big volume of works has been carried out at the right bank of Amudary River related to seismic surveys, drilling of new exploration and production wells.
It resulted in discovery of new gas deposits including in Samandepe field (Block A) as well as eastern, southern and northern parts of Bagtiyarlyk contractual territory (Blcok B). High debits of oil and gas were receied during well tests in central part of Amudarya basin. Two gas processing plants at Samandepe Field and Hojambaz etrap, more than 110 test and production wells as well as other facilities of production, logistic and social infrastructure have been built.
At present time, Amudarya Regional Gas Company, which is the part of CNPC, continues work on improvement of material base of Turkmenistan – China pipeline. The first phase of the project of development of the field, which located in eastern part of Bagtiyarlyk contractual territory, has been successfully implemented
Construction of gas collection stations, pipelines, gas treatment unit and other infrastructural facilities has been carried out in this place in 2018. Six directional wells, which tests showed high debits of gas, have been prepared for production. In January this year, first batch of high quality sale gas has been produced there.
It is planned to start industrial production of gas in the eastern part of B Block in the end of 2019. It is expected that completion of the first phase of the project will provide the production of 1.7 billion cubic meters of gas per year. Total volume of product supplied to Turkmenistan – China pipeline from the fields of Bagtiyarlyk contractual territory is more than 82 billion cubic meters today.
Direction of International Oil and Gas University spoke in details about training of personnel for oil and gas industry of our country and international cooperation in this field.
Numerous business meetings between foreign businessmen and heads of oil and gas departments and concerns of Turkmenistan, during which specific proposals for establishment of beneficial partnership in different spheres of national gas industry, have been held under X International Gas Congress.
The state news agency of Turkmenistan